Recently with Windows 10 Anniversary Update Microsoft has introduced Linux Subsystem as an optional feature. In order to get enable Bash on Windows first you need to enable and install Developer Mode package through Settings > Update & Security > For Developers > Developer Mode. Surprisingly on a fresh installation of Windows 10 1607 I’ve encountered below error.
The trick is even after this error message I was able to enable Linux subsystem through Control Panel > Programs > Turn Windows Features on or off as below.
The reason for this behavior is the extra components required by the OS to enable additional debugging features in Visual Studio or the Windows Device Portal not being installed automatically. Although you see this error message, your PC will be in developer mode and you can enable Windows Developer Mode package like Bash without any issue. Therefore you can ignore the 0x80004005 error.
One thing to keep in mind is that Linux Subsystem is still beta feature and not complete. So you can expect some things to work while there can be failures.